Dharma and Adharma, the principle of rest and motion, are different from matter. They are of a subtle form like ether. Since they pervade the whole world space, they are
also called Asthikayas. Space is also considered an existential real. Hence, space is also Ipso Facto an Asthikaya. Unlike the
various idealistic systems of philosophy for which space is unreal, Jainism maintains that the space has a reality.
The nature of the Asthikayas is such that they manifest themselves through their various qualities and modes. These 5
existing reals or Asthikayas undergo change while maintaining their identity. They have three characteristics, appearing, disappearing
and remaining permanent in spite of the above qualities. They are Utpada, Vyaya and Drowvya creation, destruction and permanence
respectively. These are the three fundamental qualities of real existence. The reality in process of development exhibit these 3
qualities of appearance, disappearance and underlying permanent identity called Drowvya. The above mentioned 5 Asthikayas exhibit
this quality of change of development. For that reason, they are called Dravyas. Dravya means that which flows.
Kala or time has no relation to space. Hence, it is not included in the class of Asthikayas. But Kala or time has these
qualities of Dravya. Kala is also considered as a Dravya. Hence, the class Dravyas consists of six items, the 5 Asthikayas and Kala or
time. These six Dravyas are mutually interpenetrating. Though they exist together in the same world space, they maintain their
individual nature. The nature of Dravya is described thus: That which maintains its identity while manifesting in various qualities
and modifications and which is not different from Satta or substance is called Dravya. In Jaina Metaphysics, there is no unchanging
substance or Satta. Satta or substance is manifesting itself through various qualities and modes. Hence, it is identical with Dravya or
the development reality. Further, Dravya is defined thus : What all has substantiality as the dialectical triad of birth, death and
permanence, and is the substratum of qualities and modes, is Dravya.
Here the three characteristics of Dravyas are described. First Dravya has the quality of Sat or existence.
Secondly it has quality of permanence through birth and death. Thirdly, it is the substratum of attributes and conditions. The
quality of Sat emphasises the substantial reality of Dravya. It is not merely the from of the intellect. It has existence
in Rerum Natura. The triple quality of dialectical change is the second attribute. Utpada is appearance i.e., assuming new
modification. This does not mean creation out of nothing. Creation by the flat of a will is not recognized by the Jainas.
Utpada therefore means that phase of the process of the development when a new form is assumed. Vyaya is losing the previous
form. Here also it is different from absolute disappearance. It only means that phase in the process of development where the earlier
form is replaced by the succeeding one. Dhruva refers to the persistence of the essential nature of Dravya which undergoes
development and which makes both Utpada and Vyaya simultaneously possible. In fact, the process of development includes all the three
phases. This fact in not only recognized by the scientists like Drawing and Spencer but by the great French philosopher Bergson who
raised it to an important philosophical principle. Lastly, Dravya is the substratum of qualities and modes. Attributes and modifications
will have no basis if they do not rest on something real. This does not mean the Dravya is merely a prop, supporting an alien fact the
attribute; but still the Jainas do not admit that the attributes alone are sufficient to constitute a reality. For them, Esse is not
Percipii. Attributes in order to be objective and not merely psychical do require an objective basis ; such a basis is Dravya.
Finally it is to be noted that these three characteristics are inseparable from one another. Satta pre-supposes Utpada, Vyaya,
Dhruvatva and also is the substratum. Similarly, process of development implies Satta, which again cannot exist apart from
qualities and modes. Neither of the three can exist apart from the other two. In short, the three characteristics express the same essential nature of Dravya in the different ways.
In examining the nature of Dravya, we may attend to the underlying permanent substance or the changing modes. The former
point of view is called Dravyarthika Naya and the latter Paryayartika Naya. According to Dravyarthika Naya, for example, the
substance, gold is neither created nor can be destroyed. It exists as a permanent substance. But this gold may be made into various
ornaments and other things. These are its modes or Paryayas. These modes are liable to change. One ornament may be melted and another
made. In melting ornament, its shape is destroyed. In making a new ornament, a new shape is created. Hence creating a new shape and
destroying the old shape are associated with the modes of the substance gold. Hence, these modes are associated with Utpada and
Vyaya creation and destruction. Though substance and modes may be studied separately, still they should not be assumed to be exiting
independent of each other. Substance cannot exist independent of its modes and mode cannot exist independent of the substance. What is
true of the substance and its modes is equally true of the substance and its qualities. For example, the qualities of gold, which are
yellow, heavy and malleable, are inseparably associated with the substance. The qualities are but the manifestation of the nature of
the substance. No substance without its qualities and no quality without its substance, are independent.
Each of the six Dravyas has its own special qualities and modes. Let us take up the first Dravya, Jiva or soul. Its nature
is Chethana or consciousness. Its essential qualities are perception and knowledge. These two Darsana and Gyana are called Upayoga. Jiva
may be born as a Deva or as a man or as a hell being or an animal. These various stages of its existence are called its Paryayas or
modes. Life in any one of these forms subjected to birth, growth and old age and death. These changes in its life are brought about by
its association with Karma. The Jiva because of its association with Karma undergoes the above changes of birth, old age and death. This
Jiva is called Samsara Jiva. Because of its intimate connection with Karma, Samsara Jiva is said to be impure. Its nature being impure,
its qualities and modes are necessarily impure. When the Jiva completely liberates itself from Karma, it becomes pure. Then it is
called Suddha Jiva, the pure self. In this pure state, its qualities are pure. The soul, which liberates itself from Samsara and realises
its pure nature in Moksha, is not entirely distinct from the soul, which was in Samsara. They are not two different entities. For
example, a gem picked up from the mine may be covered with impurities. But when it is purified and cut, the very same gem
becomes brilliant. Even so, every Jiva in Samsara is in the shackles of Karma. When it breaks these chains and liberates itself, it attains its state of Nirvana.
The attributes of Samsaric Jiva are (1), life, i.e., its 10 pranas or life-principles, (2) Chethana or consciousness, (3)
Upayoga knowledge and perception or Gyana and Darsana which are the two Upayagas associated with Jiva or soul, (4) Prabhutva or
Lordship capacity to take different status of existence in Samsara, (5) Kartha who is the actor of his own Karmas, (6) Bhokta or
enjoyer he enjoys the fruits of his own Karmas; (describing the Jiva as a Kartha, the Sankhya view that the Purusha is not the actor
but only the enjoyer is rejected. The statement that Jiva is a Bhokta rejects the Buddhistic view that the soul that acts and that
which enjoys the fruits of its action are two different entities). The next (7) Dehamatra of the same size as the body. Its nature
pervades the whole of its body. This rejects the theory that the soul is a minute atom situated inside the particular organ of the
body i.e., the heart. The next is (8) Amurtha being a spiritual entity has no corporeal form and the last (9) Karma Samyukta which means always in association with Karma.
The pure and liberated self has got its own 9 qualities. They are: (1) Pure and perfect self, (2) Perfect consciousness or
Chethana, (3) Suddha Upayaga or pure Upayaga consisting of Kevala Gyana and Kevala Darsana, (4) Lordship- having destroyed the
Karmas the self attains perfect sovereignty, (5) he is true Kartha being entirely uninfluenced by the alien conditions i.e., self
determination, (6) True Boktha enjoying the transcendent and infinite bliss, (7) Spiritual in nature has a form similar to
the last body, (8) Completely devoid of corporeal form having destroyed the karmic body and (9) completely free from Karmic body Karmanirumukta.
A living organism has 4 Pranas or vital forces. They are (1) Bala Prana consisting of Mano Bhala strength of mind, Vak Bhala,
strength of speech and Kaya Bala - strength of body, (2) Indrya Prana which are the vital forces represented by the senses
Sparsa contact, Rasa taste, Grana smell, Sabda sound, and Chakshu visual sense thus the Indrya Pranas are five, (3) Ayush Prana which is the duration of life and (4) Utchavasa
Prana respiration. These four main Pranas become 10 when the subdivisions are taken into consideration. That which
manifests through the 4 Pranas and is living at present, was living in the past and will continue to live in the future, that is Jiva.
Pudgala or matter refers to the physical objects perceived by us. Pudgala exists in two forms, Paramanu primary atom
and Skanda aggregates of atoms of molecules. These molecules or Skandas have the characteristics of touch, taste, smell, sound and colour. These aggregates may increase in volume or decrease,
according as more molecules combined with or break away as the case may be. These Skandas are of 6 different forms, such as earth, air,
water, shade the objects of the four senses, karmic matter and molecules which are unfit to become karmic matter. These 6 kinds of
Skandas are described thus: (1) Bhadra Bhadra, solid; (2) Bhadra liquid; (3) Sukshma Bhadra apparently solid by the
shadow; (4) Bhadra Sukshma minute particles evident to the senses; (5) Sukshma minute and imperceptible and (6) Sukshma Sukshma extremely minute. All these Skandas are constituted by
Paramanu, the basis atom. Ordinary physical objects are all formed out of these basic primary atoms. Like Jiva, primary atom is also
uncreated and indestructible. Some Indian systems of thought postulate different kinds of atoms corresponding to 4 Bhuthas,
earth, air, fire and water. But according to Jaina philosophy, all atoms are all of identical nature. With their differences in
composition, they produce various kinds of Dhathus such as earth, air etc. Hence, there is no qualitative differences among Paramanus.
Skandas constituted by Paramanus when they strike one another, produce sound. But the Paramanus cannot produce sound.
Hence, they are said to be soundless. All objects of sense perception are constituted by Pudgala or matter. Anything that has the quality, colour, taste, smell, touch and sound, comes under this
head. Not only objects perceived by the senses but also the sense organs are physical or material. The various Sariras
of the organic bodies of the Jivas are also physical or material. Manas or mind is also considered to be physical. The term
Sarira have means all the 5 kinds of Sariras viz., Aoudarika Sarira, Vaikriyaka Sarira, Aaharaka Sarira, Thaijasa Sarira and Karmana
Sarira. The term Karma Pudgala denotes minute material particles which constitute the Karmana Sarira of a Jiva. No- Karma-Pudgala refers to matter assimilated by the ordinary organic body through
the process of digestion and metabolism.
Dharmastikaya is devoid of the sense qualities such as taste, colour, smell, touch and sound. Hence it is different from Pudgala
or matter. It pervades the whole world. This description is also applicable to its opposite Adharmastikaya. The former is the
principle of motion and the latter is the principle of rest. It is Amurtha or non-corporeal. It is not physical and hence sense
qualities cannot be associated with it. It is not the aggregate of the simple elements as matter. It is co-existent with the world
space. It is permanent and real. It forms indispensable condition of movement of physical objects and living beings. In itself, it is not
capable of movement nor is it capable of creating movement in other thing. The analogy of water is used to illustrate its nature. Water
is the necessary condition of the movement of fish. But water does not in any way impel the fish to move. Similarly, Dharmastikaya is
the necessary condition of motion among physical objects of living beings. But it is not the cause of movement of those objects.
Adharmastikaya is the principle of rest. Its nature is quite similar to the Dharmastikaya.
It is also devoid of sense qualities. Hence it is also non-corporeal. It is co-extensive with Loka-Akasa. But it has its
own special quality. It is the basic condition of rest. Because of this, the moving objects are brought to rest. The analogy of earth
is given in this respect. Earth does not actively arrest the movement of objects physical and living. But it serves as a
place of rest for moving things. The existence of these two principles is postulated as a necessary condition of the world
structure. The world is an organised system. It owes its organised systems to these two principles of Dharma and Adharma. Otherwise,
material particles will be scattered through the whole space converting the cosmos into chaos. Then there will be no world as
such. Though they themselves are Nishkriya Dravyas or non-active things, yet they form the necessary condition of motion or rest of
things both living and non-living. In order to explain the systematic structure of the cosmos, Jaina philosophy introduces
these two postulates of Dharma and Adharma. If these two principles exist within the limit of world space causing motion and rest, then
things in motion must be moved forever and things at rest must be stationary forever. But our experiences are quite different. One and
the same thing may be in motion or in rest. Therefore, Dharma and Adharma must not be considered as efficient causes. They are quite
neutral in themselves. Without these two entities, the world is impossible and incomplete.
The Akasa term means space. What give accommodation to things living and non-living is called Akasa or space. According to Jaina
metaphysics, space is objectively real. According to philosophical idealism, space cannot be real because it is considered to be self
contradictory. But modern mathematicians do not consider space as self contradictory and impossible. It is assumed to be real. Space
contains the other 5 Dravyas. That portion of space where these Dravyas exist is called Loka Akasa. Beyond this, there is empty
space called Aloka Akasa or Ananta Akasa. No things exist in this infinite space.
Cannot Akasa or space be taken as a condition of motion and rest? Why should the two other categories Dharma and
Adharma be postulated? Such a supposition would be impossible and conflicting with the facts; for wherever there is space, there
should be free chance for motion and rest. But as a matter of fact, not a single thing living of non-living steps beyond the limit of
Loka Akasa. Hence Akasa is not endowed with the function of motion and rest. If space cannot be the condition of motion and rest, these
must be explained. Dharma and Adharma are such condition. Hence they are the necessary constituents of the system of reality. Dharma
Adharma and Akasa all the three are inter-penetrating and co-incident. They pervade the whole world. These 3 are Amurtha
Dravyas. They have no corporeal form. Ordinary physical objects are having sense qualities. Jivas have psychic qualities. These 3
Dravyas have no such differentiating characteristics. They are differentiated from one another according to their function.
Kala Dravya or time Kala or time is one of the Dravyas according to Jaina metaphysics. The whole world is a dynamic
reality. Since it consists of real, which are constantly changing, the idea of development or change naturally implies time duration in
which the development takes place. If development is taken to be real, then time duration which is the condition of development must
also be real. The system of philosophy which dismisses time as unreal must also dismiss change and development as unreal. Since the
Jaina thinkers recognize the reality of development in the world, they do postulate real time as an assessed condition of this
development. Hence time is one of the real Dravyas according to Jaina metaphysics.
Kala or time is of two kinds: (1) the absolute or real time and (2) the conventional or relative time. Conventional or
relative time is measured by the movement of physical objects. A period of relative time measured by an external object like the sun
or the moon has a definite beginning and end. But real time, Dravya kala, is of an infinite duration. It has neither beginning nor end.
Idealistic system of philosophy denies the reality of time. Time and space are considered to be unreal because they are supposed to be
self contradictory in nature. The continental mathematicians such as Cantor, Peano and Frege have shown clearly the fallacy of the
idealistic argument against the reality of time and space. The British mathematicians Bertrand Russell and Whitehead have
emphasized the philosophical importance of these mathematical discoveries of the modern days. Thus according to Jaina metaphysics,
time is not only a reality but it is also a potent factor in explaining the change and development in the real world. Hence, time
is included in the class of Dravyas or real categories. Though it is endowed with existence, it has no Kayatva or corporeal form. Hence,
it is not included in the class of Astikayas