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 JAINA PSYCHOLOGY
                            
From - PANCHASTIKAYASARA

  Jiva is the central conception of Jaina system. Its nature is chetana or consciousness. Jiva and chetana, life and consciousness, are co-extensive. Wherever there is  life  there is  consciousness. Even in the   lowest   class   of   organisms   we   have   to   posit  existence of consciousness. But this  does not imply that in every living organism there  is  explicit consciousness.  In very  many cases consciousness may be latent and implicit, and in certain  exceptional  cases  of  men having  higher    spiritual  development   consciousness  may be supernormal.
  Jiva  with  its  characteristic  of  chetana  is entirely distinct from pudgala  or  matter. It  cannot  be apprehended by sense perception; hence  it  is Amurta. The qualities which are generally associated with matter  such  as  colour,  taste,  etc,  have no relevancy in the case of chetana. Jaina  psychology is thus based upon the metaphysical assumption of jiva  which  is  of  the  nature  of chetana.  It is  not  a "psychology without  a  soul."  This  general  nature  of chetana or consciousness  manifests in two ways, darsana and jnana,  perception   and understanding. These  two modes of  consciousness are  mainly cognitive or thought elements. Consciousness includes also emotion and will. The  effective  and co native elements are also recognized by Jaina   system.  Effective  states  or emotions are  the  general characteristic  of  samsari  jiva  or living beings in our ordinary sense.  Conduct  or  behavior  is also assumed to be the natural manifestation of life. Charitra  or  conduct  is also  associated  with all samsari  jivas. Thus  from  the  point  of view  of modern psychology consciousness has a threefold function and this is also assummed in Jaina system.
  This tripartite division of consciousness is expressed in another way also. In describing the characteristics  of  jiva, its chetana  character  is said to  manifest not only in  jnana-darsana,  understanding and perception,  but also in karma chetana and  karmaphala chetana, awareness of  action  and awareness of pleasure-pain. The  recognition of the threefold aspect of  consciousness may be illustrated  even from the conception of a perfect being. The characteristics of a perfect being are anantajnana,  anantadar'sana,  anantavirya   and  ananta  sukha infinite  Knowledge, infinite Perception, infinite Power and infinite Bliss.The other characteristics  are irrelevant to our purpose. The first two of the enumerated qualities, infinite knowledge and infinite perception, are distinctly  cognitive. Infinite  power  implies  activity  or  conation and infinite  bliss the  hedonic  experience.  Thus throughout the   Jaina account of life, the three aspects of consciousness are assumed.
  Every  organism  or  a  samsari jiva  is an organic unity of two distinct entities  jiva  and  pudgala,  soul  and  body. Naturally  therefore  there crops up the problem   of  the relation between the two. Soul is chetana (consciousness), amurta (non-corporeal), arupa (non-sentient) whereas body has the opposite qualities in each case. One may be said to be the contradiction of other. The Dualism  is  so   emphatically  expressed here as in Cartesianism. 
  The  term  body  implies  two different things. The gross body that we actually  perceive  through our senses, is constituted and nourished by mater  taken  in  the  form  of  food,  etc. This   body  is  every  moment changing   and   will   be   given  up   by   the soul after a certain period. Besides  this  gross   body,   there   is   for  every jiva a subtle body as karmana sarira. This  body is constituted by subtle material molecules known  as  Karma  Pudgala.  This  subtle  body  may also be changing.  But  still  it  is  a  necessary  and inalienable  appendage of samsari jiva. This is  transcended only in the perfect state. In discussing the relation  between the states of this karma sarira  and the states of jiva, Jainism makes an  important  distinction  between  upadana  karta and  nimitta karta,  substantial  cause  and  external  cause. Mental  states are the modification of the mind and Physical states are the   modification of matter. Mind is the upadana  karta of physical states and matter is the upadana karta  of  physical change, and  yet  Physical  state  and physical  states  may  be  mutually external   conditions. The causal activity contemplated  here is  a bit obscure. One physical  state is due to the  immediately  antecedent  physical  state  and similarly one physical  state  is the result of its own antecedent. Thus mental series in a  way is  independent of  physical series. But still a mental change may be  externally  determined  by a  physical change, and the physical conversely by  the  mental  change. the  relation  between  the physical and  the  mental  is  purely  external.  In  the  technical  language  of  the system,  one  is  the  nimitta karta of the other. So far as we are able to make out, the meaning seems to be this: a  mental change is due to two conditions one an upadana  karta, a  physical antecedent. The mental change is the result of both these antecedent conditions, physical and mental. Similarly a change in the body is to be traced to two conditions: an  upadana  condition,  a   physical   antecedent  in this  case,  and a nimitta  conditions,  a mantel  antecedent. The system  emphasizes  the casual  interrelation  between  mind  and  matter,  even  though  the interrelation  is  one  of  external  condition. The  reason  given  for accepting this interrelation is the reality of moral responsibility. If there is no  causal   interrelation   between mind  and  matter, why should a person be  taken responsible for his  conduct? If moral responsibility is real, if  moral  evaluation  of  conduct is genuine, then conduct must be the intimate expression of the personality.
  Though  the  discussion  is  about jiva  and  its karmana sarira, the discussion  and  its conclusion may very well be taken  as  relevant  to our   problem   of  the   relation   between  soul  and  body.  The  whole discussion   may   be   taken   as expressing  the  views in regard to the wider problem. Soul and body are capable of causal interrelation and a change in one always involves two antecedents,  one physical and the other physical. If causal  interrelation is not admitted,  certainly ethical values will remain unexplained and unintelligible.
  The sense  organs  recognized  in  the system are the usual five. But sometimes manas or  mind is also spoken of as an indriya. Indriyas in general  are  of  two kinds: dravya indriya or the physical sense organ and bhava indriya the  psychical  counterpart. Sensory  awareness is the  result  of the  contact  between dravya  indriya and  the  physical object sensed. It is assumed of course that   only  physical   objects or pudgala can be apprehended by sensation. This contact may be direct or   indirect. In  case  of  sight  the  contact  is  indirect. The  object perceived by vision is not   brought   in  contact  with  the  eyes. The objects in space are revealed to us by light or jyoti. It is through being illuminated  that  they  are apprehended by vision. The exact operation of  light  on  the  eyes  is  not further explained. In the case of the other senses, we  have  direct  contact. But  the  direct contact may be sthula, or sukshma, gross or subtle. In the case of touch and taste we have the direct contact  with  the gross object. But in the case  of  small  we have contact  with  minute  particles of the object smelt. In the case of sound also we  have sukshma  contact.  But in  this case what the ears come in contact with, is merely  a  kind   of   motion. Unlike the other Indian systems of thought  which  associate sound with akasa, Jaina system explains the sound  as  due to the violent contact of one physical object with  the  other. It  is  said  to  be  generated  by  one skandha knocking  against another skandha. Sound is the agitation set up by this knock. It is on account of this theory of sound that the system speaks of an atom or paramanu as un  sounding  by  itself. Thus  in  all  these cases,  the environmental  stimulus is either  directly  or indirectly a physical object. Sense  perception  is  the  result of  the  contact  between two physical things dravyendriya  on  the  hand and the stimulus from the object on the other hand. The  next  interesting  point is the  analysis of the different sensations obtained through different sense organs. Through the eyes we have the apprehension  of  five colours. Visual  sensations  consist  of  the  five elements  or  pancha varna.  But we have to note here that sensation of white  is  also  included  as  one  of  the colours. In this respect the term varna  or colour  is  used  in  its  popular  scenes and not in the scientific sense. Similarly taste is of five  kinds  pungent,  bitter,  sweet,  sour  and saline.  These  five  tastes  are  obtained   through   the  tongue  which is rasanendriya.  Skin  is  sparsanendriya  and   through  it  the following eight kinds of coetaneous sensations are obtained: light and heavy, soft and  hard,  rough  and  smooth,  cold  and  hot  sensations  four  pairs of opposite senses. These coetaneous include  sensations  of  temperature contract, pressure and  muscular  or  kinesthetic  sensations. Sensations of  smell  is  only  of  two  kinds, sugandha  and  durgandha. Sound sensations  are  of  infinite  variety. The different kinds of sound natural and artificial, purposive  and  non-purposive,  articulate  and  inarticulate, musical and non-musical are spoken of. What  we directly  apprehend  through  a  sense  organ  is  not  merely particular  sensation   but   the   object. Sense perception  is known as darsana. Darsana is  the  perception of a  physical object. Darsana may be  chaksu  darsana  and  achaksu  darsana.  Chaksu  darsana   means perception of  an  object  through  visual  sensation.  Achaksu  darsana means  perception   through  the other  senses. Darsana  or   senses  perception  not only  implies the passive receptivity of the mind but also the active interpretation of the received stimulus, i.e. Darsana means the complication between  the  datum  and  mental   construction. This is implied in the description given of "knowledge by acquaintance". Mati, avagraha  iha,  avaya  are   different stages of  sense perception. Avagraha refers to roughly the datum. But the  datum  does  note  mean anything. It is merely the un understood patch of colour, e.g. in the case of visual  sensation. At  the presentation of this visual patch there is the questioning attitude of mind which is represented by  the term iha. As a result of this examination we may interpret the object.This interpretation is  avaya. In  the  case  of  visual perception these three different stages may  not  be  clearly distinguishable. But in  the case  of auditory perception we  may clearly recognize the different stages. Darsana then includes all these three stage, then only is the thing known to us. 
  These three  stage together with darsana or recollection constitute the different forms of mati jnana. But recollection is connected with memory and need not be brought under sense perception.  In  this connection  we  have  to  notice  one important point. The term  darsana  is  not  confined  to  sense perception.  It  is a general term including the sense perception as well as the  supernormal  perception of other  kinds. Two kinds of  supernormal perception  are generally mentioned  by Jaina  thinkers  avadhi  darsana  and  kevala  darsana. Avadhi darsana refers to the peculiar kind of clairvoyant capacity which is able to perceive things and events in distant places and also in distant times, either past or future. Objects and events not evident to the normal sense  perception  are  obvious  to  avadhi  darsana.  But  the  object  of avadhi perception appear as if they are perceived normally close at hand.
  It is  said  that avadhi  darsana  is  concerned with only rupa dravyas or perceptual  objects. The  other   darsana  known  as kevala darsana is perception  par excellence. It  is associated with perfect consciousness. This  faculty  is  acquired  after complete emancipation from  karmic bondage. To  this   perception   the  whole  reality is obvious. In short it refers to  the  all-perceiving faculty of paramatma. What we are  justified in speaking of in connection with Jaina psychology are the normal sense  perception, chaksu  darsana  and  achaksu  darsana,  the  supernormal clairvoyant perception or avadhi  darsana.
  Jaina  account of cognition is also interesting. Jnana or understanding is  said to  be different kinds  according to means employed in cognition. 
(1) Mati  jnana is  knowledge  obtained   through  the   normal  means  of sense perception and memory based upon the same. This is the common inheritance   of   all   persons.
(2) Sruta jnana  is  knowledge  obtained through  testimony of  books. This  corresponds  to  knowledge by description.  It  is acquired  by  study. Therefore it is possessed by only the  learned  men. Besides these two means of knowledge there are three other  supernormal  means  of  understanding. 
 These  are  avadhi jnana, mana paryaya jnana and kevala  jnana. Avadhi jnana is understanding of the nature of the objects  obvious  to avadhi darsana. Mana paryaya jnana  refers  to  a  peculiar  kind  of  telepathic  knowledge  acquired  by persons of certain stage of spiritual development. It is a means by which knowledge  of  alien  minds  is  obtained. The last one of course refers to the perfect  understanding or  the  omniscience  of  the  Perfect Being or Purushottama. Treating  this  as  the  metaphysical  ideal,  we  have  to recognize  the   other   four   kinds   of    cognition   as   relevant   to   our psychological interest.
   Affective consciousness  plays  a  very important part in  Jaina metaphysics. The whole religious discipline is directly secured by a stoic freedom from the affective influence of environmental objects. Experience of pleasure, pain is assumed to be the specific characteristic of organized beings  or samsari jivas.  In  one  of  the  descriptions  given  of jiva, it is mentioned that jiva has  the tendency to continue beneficial activity from which  pleasure  result and to discontinue the harmful activity from which pain  results. This  is  so  very  analogous  to biological description of the instinct  of  self-preservation. Jiva  equipped  with  this  quality naturally desires pleasant things and avoids unpleasant things. 
   Since  the  psychological  analysis  is  subordinate  to  the metaphysical system, several  facts of   psychological   interest  are  thrown  into   the background of the philosophical scheme. Nevertheless there is no mistake about  the  striking  psychological   analysis  exhibited  by Jaina  thinkers. Experience  of  pleasure  and  pain,  is generally referred to as karmaphala chetana  or  consciousness  of  the fruits of action. Pleasure  and  pain are always viewed in relation to action. Bhava  or  affective   consciousness  is  o  three kinds, -subha bhava, asubha bhava  and  suddha bhava feeling of pleasant nature, feeling of an unpleasant  nature,  and  feeling  or  pure  nature. The last one refers to the  enjoyment of  Self  by  Self. As such  it  may be taken to mean the spiritual experience of the  pure  Self. The other two kinds of the feeling are relevant to  the  point. These  are  corresponding  to  the  normal  feelings generally recognized  by  students of psychology.  These feelings are generally  related  to  certain  objects in  the  environment   to  which there may be attraction  or  aversion  in the jiva. Thus on the one hand feelings manifest as  the  result  of  karma  or  action,  and  on  the  other  hand they   are determined by objects in the environment.
   A very  interesting  classification of emotions is given in connection with the  conditions  of  karmic  bondage.  These emotions are generally divided into  two  main  classes  sakashaya  and akashaya,  those   that  have the tendency to colour  or stain  the  purity of the soul and those that have not that  tendency. The  sakashaya  ones  are  krodha  or anger, mana or pride, maya  or deceitfulness  or  dissembling and lobha or greed. The akashaya emotions are
Hasya -     laughter.
Rati -         feeling of attraction.
Arati -        feeling of repulsion. 
Soka -       sorrow.
Bhaya -     fear.
Jugupsa -   feeling   of   disgust  which   may  manifest  in  hiding  ones  own weaknesses.
Striveda -   peculiar sex feeling of women. 
Pumsaveda - peculiar sex feeling of men. Napumsaka Veda - The corrupt sex feeling of eunuchs. 
  Again certain instinctive tendencies are also referred to as samjnas. These are  ahara,  bhaya,  maithuna  and  parigraha- hunger, fear, sexual appetite and  acquisitive instincts. There  are  corresponding  feelings  to these instinctive appetites which may colour the consciousness of a jiva.
  The feeling aspect of sensations is implied in the very classification of the sense elements. The  feeling  aspect  is predominant in the case of smell and taste whereas it is indirectly associated with auditory and visual sensations. The  rest of  the  reference  to  feeling  of  pleasure  and  pain  are  purely  metaphysical  and  therefore  they  are  more  of  religious  interest  than  of scientific interest. 
  Atma is not only jnani and bhokta, the knower and the enjoyer but is also  a karta  or  the  agent.  This may  be considered as the central idea of Jaina system. Soul by its own  activity is able to make or mar its own destiny. The theory of karma is intimately associated with the causal agency of atma. As a result of  this metaphysical assumption, we  have several  facts of  psychological  importance  mentioned  in  the system. Even in the lowest organism  there  is  the  tendency  to  continue  pleasurable  activity  and  to discontinue  painful  activity.  This  primitive  tendency  of life or jiva is just the  co  native  activity  which develops into conscious choice of  an end or purpose  which  is  characteristic of volitional activity. In human beings this co native tendency is naturally associated with raga and dvesha, desire and aversion.
  Co native  activity  in general is  denoted by  the  term karmachetana. This karmachetana  or   consciousness  of  activity  is  to be associated with the zoological  kingdom  trasa jiva. The plant world  or  the  world  of ekendriya sthavara jivas  is  devoid of this karma chetana. They  have  karma  phala chetana alone whereas the other jivas have both and also jnana  chetana  to boot. The  importance  of  volitional  activity is clearly testified by the part it plays  in  the  Jaina system  of  ethics. The  psychology   of  will   is  also connected  with  another doctrine of   psychological  importance. Mohaniya karma   which  is   considered  to  be  the  root  of  all  evil  has  two  aspects, cognitive  and  co  native.  What  is  known as  darsana mohaniya interferes with  the  faculty  of  perception  and  belief.  Charitra  mohaniya is a sort of corruption of the will; it misleads the will and thus leads the jiva towards evil. We  shall  consider  the  relation  between  karma  and  atma  when  we go to consider  the ethical aspect of Jaina system. In the meanwhile let us see what Jaina logic is. 
 
 
 
                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                       

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