(by Shri Pujyapad)
(penance or Austerities ) is a great purifier of soul. As a
heap of rubbish will be destroyed by fire in the same way the
spiritual fire genereted by Tapa or Dhyana will completely burn the
impurities of Karma associated with the self or Atma. Written
by Shri Pujyapadda's
Tapa (penance) or austerity is of two kinds, external and internal. Each
is of six subdivision.
(a) Bahya Tapa (external
(The external austerities
are) fasting, reduced diet, special restrictions for begging food,
giving up stimulating and delicious dishes, lonely habitation and
mortification of the body.
is intended to promote self-control and discipline, destruction of
attachment, destruction of karma and attainment of meditation and
scriptural knowledge and not temporal benefits. Diminished diet is
intended to develop vigilance in self-control, suppression of evils,
contentment and study with ease. Special restrictions
consisting in limiting the number of houses etc. for begging food,
and these are indented for overcoming desire. The fourth is
giving up stimulating and delicious food. The ascetic has to make
his abode in lonely places or houses in order to maintain without
disturbance celibacy, study, meditation and so on. This is the fifth
austerity. The different postures of living namely mortification
of body is the sixth austerity.
division of internal austerities are described as
Expiation, reverence, service, study, renunciation and
meditation are the internal austerities.
removal of sins committed by negligence or under the influence of
passions is expistion. Reverence to the holy personage is 'vinaya'.
Service is the help rendered to the saints in diffculty by bodily
activity or with things. Contemplation of knowledge or giving up
sloth or idleness is study. The giving up of the attitude of
'I" and 'Mine' is renunciation. Checking the rambling of mind
The subdivision of internal austerities are mentioned as
Prior to meditation these are of nine, four, ten,
five and two kinds respectively.
of nine kinds. Reverence is of four kinds. Renunciation is of two
kinds. It is mentioned prior to meditation (which is described in
details later on).
subdivision of the first are described as
both, discrimination, giving up attachment to the body, penance,
suspension expulsion and reinitiation.
one's transgression to the master without the ten faults is
confession. Expression of penitence by uttering, ' my deeds be
condoned' is repentance. As the sin is corrected by the
combination of the two, it is two fold expiation,. The separation of
food, drink, implements of sense-control, etc. is discrimination.
The next is performance of austerity by standing in a place etc.
without any attachment for the body. Penance is fasting. discounting
the period of penance by a week, a fortnight, a month, etc. is suspension.
Expelling one from the order for a fortnight, a month etc. is
expulsion which is another kind of expiation. Reinitiation consists
is initiation into the order once again.
The subdivision of reverence are mentioned as
to knowledge, faith, conduct and the custom of homage
knowledge, practicing knowledge, recollecting knowledge and so on
with the object of attaining salvation constitute reverence to
knowledge. Belief in the nature of reality without doubts etc. is
reverence to faith. Absorption in conduct with knowledge and faith
is reverence to conduct. With regard to the great ones who are not
present, making obeisance with the body, speech or mind, extolling
their merits and recollecting
them also constitute reverence to the custom of homage.