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                    Tapa (Penance or Austerities)

Uttama Tapa Dharma:   Sarvarthasidhi (by Shri Pujyapad)

 The subdivisions of respectful service are described as

      
Respectful service to the Head (acarya), the preceptor, the ascetic, the disciple, the ailing ascetic, the congregation of aged saints, the congregation of disciples of a common teacher, the congregation of the four orders (of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen), the long-standing ascetic and the saint of high reputation.
 
Respectful services is of ten kinds, for its objects are of ten kinds. For instances, services rendered to the head of the congregation, services rendered to the preceptor, the Acarya, Upadhyaya in order to attain liberation. Tapasvi is the saint who practises long fasts etc, Saiksa is the the disciple. Glana is the saint, whose body is affected on account of illness etc. Gana is a congregation of  old ascetics. Kula, Samgha, Sadhu, Manojna all are subject to respectful service.
  The type of study are described as
 

 
Teaching, questioning, reflection, recitation and preaching.
 
Teaching consisting in teaching words, putting questions to others with the object of clearing doubts. Contemplating the knowledge acquired is reflection. Recitation is repeating the text again and again and preaching is narrating moral stories etc.

  The penance of giving up attachment is described as

 
 
Giving up external and internal attachments.
  
Vyutsarga means giving up. It is of two kinds, giving up external objects of attachment and internal attachments. House, riches, grain, etc., which do not becomes one with the self, are external attachments. The passions etc. are internal attachments.
  The agent, the nature and the duration of concentration are described as

 
  
Concentration of thought on one particular object is meditation. In the case of a person with the best physical structure or constitution it extends up to one muhurta.
   
The first three physical structure are included here. Meditation is possible for the individuals possessing these three physical structures. 'Ekagra' means having one point, edge or object. Thought is characterized by throbbing or quivering, as it embraces several objects. Concentration is turning the thought away from several objects and fixing it on one. 'Muhurta' is the period of time. ' Antarmuhurta' means within one muhurta that is a time limit.
 The types of meditation are mentioned as

 

 The painful (Sorrowful), the cruel, the virtuous (righteous) and the pure.
 
'Arti' is pain. That wich arise from it is 'artam', painful. 'Rudra' means cruel temprament. 'Dharma' has been defined as moral duties. That, which is associated with it, is "dharmyam' virtuous or rightous. Pure from the association of pure qualities. These four kinds of meditation are divided into two classes, good and evil or auspicious and inauspicious.  The former (painful and cruel) are called inauspicious, as these two leads to the influx of inauspicious karmas. The latter are called auspicious, as they are capable of destroying karmas.

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