(by Shri Pujyapad)
of respectful service are described as
service to the Head (acarya), the preceptor, the ascetic, the
disciple, the ailing ascetic, the congregation of aged saints, the
congregation of disciples of a common teacher, the congregation of
the four orders (of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen), the
long-standing ascetic and the saint of high reputation.
services is of ten kinds, for its objects are of ten kinds. For
instances, services rendered to the head of the congregation,
services rendered to the preceptor, the Acarya, Upadhyaya in order
to attain liberation. Tapasvi is the saint who practises long fasts
etc, Saiksa is the the disciple. Glana is the saint, whose body is
affected on account of illness etc. Gana is a congregation of
old ascetics. Kula, Samgha, Sadhu, Manojna all are subject to
of study are described as
questioning, reflection, recitation and preaching.
consisting in teaching words, putting questions to others with the
object of clearing doubts. Contemplating the knowledge acquired is
reflection. Recitation is repeating the text again and again and
preaching is narrating moral stories etc.
penance of giving up attachment is described as
up external and internal attachments.
means giving up. It is of two kinds, giving up external objects of
attachment and internal attachments. House, riches, grain, etc.,
which do not becomes one with the self, are external attachments.
The passions etc. are internal attachments.
the nature and the duration of concentration are described as
of thought on one particular object is meditation. In the case of a
person with the best physical structure or constitution it extends
up to one muhurta.
first three physical structure are included here. Meditation is
possible for the individuals possessing these three physical
structures. 'Ekagra' means having one point, edge or object. Thought
is characterized by throbbing or quivering, as it embraces several
objects. Concentration is turning the thought away from several
objects and fixing it on one. 'Muhurta' is the period of time. '
Antarmuhurta' means within one muhurta that is a time limit.
of meditation are mentioned as
painful (Sorrowful), the cruel, the virtuous (righteous) and the
is pain. That wich arise from it is 'artam', painful. 'Rudra' means
cruel temprament. 'Dharma' has been defined as moral duties. That,
which is associated with it, is "dharmyam' virtuous or rightous.
Pure from the association of pure qualities. These four kinds of meditation
are divided into two classes, good and evil or auspicious and
inauspicious. The former (painful and cruel) are called
inauspicious, as these two leads to the influx of inauspicious
karmas. The latter are called auspicious, as they are capable of