Uttama Kshama or forbearance: In the life of an ascetic, he may find himself in circumstances, likely to arouse his wrath. Inspite of such provocation, he must avoid
emotional disturbance and maintain peace of mind. This maintaining patience in the midst of provocation is called Kashama or
forbearance. Provocation circumstances may occur in this way. Homeless saint must his body for the achievement of his spiritual
goal. For this, he must obtain food from the householders. Therefore he must come out of his solitude and enter a town or a village where
he may get food. He may have to pass through streets where he may come across with an unsympathetic crowd. At the sight of an ascetic,
the mischievous crowd may indulge in ridicule and abuse. They may even assault him. In spite of all these insults and ill treatment, the saint should not exhibit any unfavorable reaction. He should maintain patience. He should consider all these insults and ill
treatment as a result of ignorance. With the nobility of thought, he should forgive the mischief-makers. Such a mental attitude of the saint is called the noble forbearance or Uttama Kshama.
Mardavam: This refers to the complete absence of self-conceit. Such self-conceit or pride may be due to one’s own superior caste, one’s family
prestige, one’s own bodily beauty, learining, wealth, courage and bodily strength. Due to these various reasons, a person may
entertain the feeling of self-importance and pride. Whenever a man with such pride is insulted by other persons, he may lose his temper
and start abusing with disrespectful words or conduct. Even an ascetic may get offended and lose his control of mind in such
circumstances. But he will become a victim of pride and self-conceit. Complete avoidance of this feeling of pride is called Mardhavam or humility.
Aarjava: Aarjava means straightforwardness in conduct. One’s own conduct may be crooked. His bodily action, speech and mind may be lacking in
straightforwardness. Avoiding this crookedness in thought, word and deed, is called Aarjavam or uprightness in conduct
Soucham: Accoding greed and abstaining from possessive longing is called Soucham or purity of thought.
The longings that should be got rid off are of 4 different kinds. They are:
1. Jivana Lobha – longing to sustain one’s living.
2. Aroygaya Lobha – longing to sustain one’s health.
3.Upabhoga Lobha longing to enjoy things, which will be useful to contribute to general happiness.
Each objects will be of two kinds; one pertaining to the self and the one pertains to others. Getting rid of these 8 different types of longing is called Soucham or purity.
Satyam: means telling the truth in the company of elders.
Samyaham: Samyaham means to the control of breathing and the six Indiriyas. For the purpose of destroying the Karmas, kindling the
spiritual flame by practice of austerity is called Thapas. This is of 12 different kinds.
Tyaga means sacrifice. For the benefit of the initiate and the ascetic,
the master should give him the instruction to promote his knowledge to maintain his health etc. For this purpose he must be given a copy
of the book to promote his learning. Such sacrifice of one’s own possession for the benefit of the other, constitute Tyaga or sacrifice.
Aakinchinya: The thing that this is mine relating to one’s own body and other articles for maintains the body, results in developing attachment to
these things. Getting rid of the feeling of attachment is Askinchinya. The thought or action expressing this feeling “ that
there is nothing in these things relevant to me” is the meaning of Askinchinya.
Brahmacharya means complete chastity. Remembering the past sex experiences, listening to sex-stories, sleeping in a bad or sitting in a chair
which are likely to stimulate sex thoughts, must completely avoided. In order to completely abstain from such thoughts and feelings; one
should live in association with saintly masters. Observance of chastity keeps the body healthy and free from sickness; and it develops the mind i.e., sharpens the intelligence.