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     NIYAMASARA (Shri KundaKunda Acharya)
        NON -SOUL (AJIVA)        CHAPTER 2  
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  20. The substance matter is of tow kinds; in the form of an atom (Parmanu) and in the form of molecules (Skandha). And the molecules are of six kinds and atom (is) of two kinds.
  21-24. Gross-gross, gross, gross-fine, fine-gross, fine, and fine-fine are the six kinds, earth, etc. Solids like earth, stone, consist of gross- gross molecules (Liquids) like ghee, water, oil are gross. Shade, sunshine, etc., consist of gross-fine molecules.
Objects of the four senses (of touch, taste, smell and hearing) are of fine- gross molecules. Karmic molecules, in the condition of being bound up with soul are fine. Those which are unlike these are of fine-fine molecules.
  25. That which is the cause of the four root matters (earth, water, fire and air) should be known as cause-atom. (Karana Parmanu). The Smallest possible part of a molecule should be known as effect atom (Karya Parmanu).


  26. That substance which (is) the beginning, the middle and the end by itself, inapprehensible by the senses, and (is) indivisible, should be known as an atom.
  27. That which possesses one taste, color, and smell, and two touches is of natural attributes. Those tangible to all (Senses) are in Jain Philosophy said to be of non-natural attributes.
  28. The modification which is independent of other objects is the natural modification (Svabhava Pryaya); and modification in the molecular form is the non-natural modification, (Vibhava Pryaya).
  29. From the real point of view an atom is said to be "Matter substance"; but from the other (i.e., practical point of view) the "Matter substance" has been applied to a molecule.
  30. The auxiliary causes of motion and rest to sou and matter (are called) the medium of motion, and medium of rest (respectively). (That which is the auxiliary cause of) filing space to all the substances, soul, etc. (is) space.
  31. Practical time is either of two kinds, instant and wink (avali); or of three kinds (past, present and future). Past (time is) equal to the number (of the liberated souls) who have destroyed their bodily forms, multiplied by numerable winks.

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