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        TATTVĀRTHĀDHIGAMASŪTRA (Tatvarthasutram)
                      Shri Umasvami (Umasvati)
CHAPTER  1                               
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                                 (VALID KNOWLEDGE)
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  I bow to the Lord, the promulgator of the path to liberation, the destroyer of mountains ( large heaps) of karmas and the knower of the whole reality, so that I may realize these qualities.  


1. Right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct (together) constitute the path to  liberation.
2. Belief in substances ascertained as they are is right faith.  
3. That  (This  right  faith)  is   attained   by   intuition    or  by    acquisition of knowledge.  
4. (The) soul, (the)  non-soul,  influx,  bondage,  stoppage,  gradual  dissociation and liberation constitute reality. 
5. These  are   installed  (in  four  ways)  by  name, representation,  substance (potentiality) and actual state. 
6. Knowledge (of the seven categories) is attained by means of pramana and  naya.  
7. (Knowledge  of  the  seven  categories  is  attained)  by description,  owner-  ship, cause, resting place (substratum), duration and division.
8. (The seven categories are known) also by  existence, number (enumeration), place or abode, extent of space (pervasion), time,  interval  of time, thought-activity, and  reciprocal comparison.


 9. Knowledge  is  of  five  kinds – sensory  knowledge,  scriptural   knowledge,  clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscience.     
10. These (five kinds  of  knowledge)  are  the  two  types  of  pramäna  (valid - knowledge).  
11. The first two (kinds of knowledge) are indirect (knowledge).
12. The remaining three constitute direct (knowledge).   
13. Sensory cognition, remembrance,  recognition,  induction  and  deduction are synonyms
14. That is caused by the senses and the mind.
15. (The four divisions of sensory knowledge  are)  apprehension  (sensation), speculation, perceptual judgment and retention.
16. (The subdivision of each of these are) more,  many  kinds,  quick,  hidden, unexpressed, lasting and their  opposites. 

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